Ph

The pH scale is a measure of the acid and base concentration of a solution. A pH of 7 is neutral 0-7 is the acid range and 7-14 is the base or alkalinity range. The presence of dissolved carbonates, bicarbonates, and hydroxides in water is associated with alkalinity. The presence of dissolved organic matter in water causes it to be more acidic in nature. Fast growing fish are associated with alkaline waters whereas slow growing fish are associated with acidic waters. Alkaline waters enhance the...

Lift

At the end of the fly's drift, raise the rod high and let the current pull the fly up to the surface. This imitates the rising emergence ofan insect. It is simple to do and effective. The fish targets on the nymph's rising action. Mayflies and caddisflies are effectively fished with this lift method. During insect emergence, fish often feed upon the nymphs transforming into adults. Fish can become selective and prefer eating these helpless emergent nymphs rather than the mature adults. Adult...

Leaders

The leader's purpose is to fool the fish by disguising the fly's connection to the fly line. Flyfishers refer to the end of the leader as the tippet. Line type, water clarity, fish size, and fly size determine the leader's length, taper, flexibility, and strength. Leaders can become easily kinked from storage on a spool or a reel. The safest way to straighten leaders is by carefully stretching them with a steady pull. This can be done by pulling the leader between your two hands or by attaching...

Freestone Streams

A freestone stream's water source is either snowmelt or rainfall, so they rely upon precipitation for their flow volume. Freestones generally have steep gradients characterized by areas of rapid and fast currents. They are usually sited in canyon areas. A freestone stream's volume crests in early summer while its flow diminishes in the fall and winter. The stark contrast between late springtime and winter flows can be surprising. A once productive summer side-channel may be bone dry in the...

Physical Conditioning

Weight training exercises can help develop casting muscles. These muscles can be developed through a program of resistance training. Gripping a long handled ax or sledge hammer like a rod and lifting it in sets of repetitions can develop these casting muscles. Perform 3 to 6 sets of 12 reps every other day for about 6 weeks. As strength develops use more resistance by increasing distance between ax head and wrist. Good casters have powerful power strokes and well-conditioned muscles. It...

Surface Film

Surface film tension is the property of a liquid by which it acts as if its surface is a stretched elastic membrane. This tension allows insects to stand on the water's surface. Surface film tension is caused by the attraction of water molecules to each other in addition, the surface molecules are attracted to the underlying molecules. The amount of surface film tension is affected by both temperature and dissolved substances. An increase in temperature lowers the net force of attraction among...

Type of Casts

The backhand cast is useful for casting on the opposite side of your body. Instead of switching the rod from the dominant hand to the other hand, the dominant hand is employed throughout the cast. Most right handed casters have difficulty casting left handed. Many times a wind or an obstruction limits one-sided casting for example, a stiff breeze blown onto the right side of a right handed caster blows the line onto the caster. It's corrected by either casting left handed or by using this...

Wet Fly Swing

The wet fly swing is used to present the fly in large riffles. Whenever the lie of a fish is uncertain, the wet fly swing system is helpful in discovering secluded fish. Nearly all of a riffle can be covered by adding a step-down between casts. It is a productive manner to fish both attractor and baitfish flies furthermore, it's a favored steelhead method. The fly's swing conveys a lifelike appearance to its materials. With the wet fly swing both the surface and the depths of a run can be...

Modified Wet Fly Swing

The modified wet fly swing is adjusted to fish weighted flies or sink-tip lines along the stream's bottom. The modification is that the cast is directed three-quarters upstream instead of slightly downstream this change permits the fly and line to sink deeper. Otherwise, this technique is identical to the wet fly swing with perhaps the additional need for some line mends. Swinging deeply through its arc, the fly is presented along the stream's bottom. 2. Mends are made as necessary in the...

Posture Body Position

Fly Fishing Equipment

To provide the longest possible casting arcs the caster's body is angled sideward toward the target. The foot opposite the casting arm is placed in the forward position pointed at the target. The other foot is placed behind and turned outwards nearly at a right angle from the line of cast. See Diagram 11 On the forward cast the body weight is shifted to the forward foot likewise on the backcast the weight is shifted to the back foot. In this stance the caster can easily view the backcast by...

Shoreline Vegetation

Shorelines with heavy vegetation can be difficult to fish however, wading or float tubing can provide good access. In addition, shade and cover are provided in these places. A bonus source of terrestrials is included ants, beetles, hoppers, leaf worms, and caterpillars can be added to the fish's menu. Sometimes these areas are best fished from the lakeside shoreward. Fishing from a silent float tube out in the lake and casting towards the shore is an advantage.

Beaver Ponds

Fly Fishing Beaver Dam Utah

Beaver ponds are capable of providing outstanding fishing. They can unexpectedly appear on stretches of small canyon streams that are too small to provide much of a stable fishery. These dams can furnish prime fish habitat where it didn't previously exist. Their locations are sometimes remote and secretive. i have discovered many of my favorite ponds while out in the woods hunting grouse or deer. The best ponds are located on sections of a spring creek in remote canyon country. The spring...

Selecting Alpine Lakes

When i was young i loved to fish alpine lakes. The scenic perfection of Utah's High Uinta lakes drew my attention. i learned early that a lake's remoteness equated into great fishing consequently, an arduous hike led to an angling treasure. in the sixties i explored hundreds of back country lakes in search of the perfect shangri-la. i hoped that my next trek would lead to a paradise with huge trout and outstanding scenery. My shangri-la was never found, but i did experience some great fly...

Gray Drake

Family Siphlonuridae Genus Siphlonurus Life Cycle incomplete Three Life Stages egg, nymph, adult cycle which includes 2 phases dun and spinner Emergence April-October Swimmer Mayfly Group Abdomen double-flapped gills on first segments Eyes large Tails 3 Wings pads Legs 6 Mobility hair fringed tails make them rapid swimmers Most dense populations are found in slow-moving streams. They can be found among the grass and roots of undercut banks. Diet includes plant matter, smaller insects but mostly...

Dry Fly Natural Drift

The natural drift's purpose is to provide a drag-free drift of the fly. During hatching and egg-laying activities, mayflies are motionless creatures. They are mimicked well by this method. Drifting along the surface, mayflies are at the mercy of the current. To drift unnaturally is termed drag, and it's caused by the leader pulling on the fly. Drag pulls the fly across the current in an unnatural motion. Effective presentations are drag free. The following is a list of methods designed to...

Riffling Hitch Waking

Riffle Hitch Knot

The riffling hitch provides a surface struggling-and-waking action that simulates an injured baitfish trying to right itself. With this crippled action, fish are attracted to an easily caught meal. This method is productive for both salmon and steelhead as well as trout and smallmouth bass. Whenever the fish are actively feeding at the surface, the riffled fly may be fruitful. At times of giant stonefly and golden stonefly egg laying flights, the riffle hitch affords an enticing action....

Strip Retrieve

The line is grasped between the thumb and first finger of the line hand and stripped in a down and backward motion. Next, release the grasp on the line and return the line hand back to its original position. The length and speed of this strip can be varied. The rod hand's line finger acts as a line guide and as a brake for a sudden stop in the retrieve or in firmly striking a fish. This retrieve is most commonly used to imitate a wide variety of prey. Strip Retrieve is executed as shown in A-C...

Wading Equipment

Felt soles provide traction on slippery, moss covered rock. Consequently felt soles are a good choice for wading rocky streams. But felts can furnish poor footing on inclined muddy banks where they can slide downhill like skis. In muddy areas watch your step when wearing felt soles. Cleated rubber soles provide good footing in muddy areas. The deeper the tread the better they perform in the mud. Rubber cleats are useful in some streams where recently flooded gravel has not yet formed moss...

Grease Line Presentation

The grease line presentation furnishes a broadside drift of the fly making the fly's wide silhouette more visible to the fish. The stream currents playing upon the fly materials make it come alive as it drifts downstream. During the drift the fly is fished in a drag-free manner, and then as it comes to the swing-down position fished the same as the wet fly swing. This grease line presentation was established long ago in Europe as an Atlantic salmon technique. The grease line refers to greasing...

Double Haul

Single Haul Cast

The double haul cast includes the single haul on the backcast plus an additional haul on the forward cast. Its purpose is to increase line speed and momentum for distance. Besides, some line can be shot on the backcast so when it straightens out the additional forward haul can shoot even more line on the forward cast. Again, the same single haul is made on the backcast and the forward cast haul is made as follows The line hand on the forward cast abruptly pulls the line downwards towards the...

Threadfin Shad

The threadfin shad are fish that are usually in open waters and run in close-schooling, fast-swimming groups. These schools appear to be silvery black clouds. They can be found in waters that are warmer than 45 . They grow up to 3 inches and in some 2 year olds may be as large as 4-7. They are characterized by a dark eyelike marking with a thick shaped belly. They have silver sides with a darker back. Alewives and smelts are also from this group of fish.

Deep Holes

Deep holes are usually resting lies but some can also be considered prime lies. A resting lie awards protection from both predation and current force. A deep hole's depth provides protection from predation and the current. Although many deep holes may lack an abundant food supply such as a riffle can provide, drifting food may still be deposited. Many times deep holes become daytime hiding places at low light fish migrate to feed in the riffles. Tail outs of deep holes may contain a riffled...

Wiggle Cast

The slack line cast is useful to promote a drag free float across complex currents. Its purpose is to lay out the line and leader in a serpentine manner causing a prolonged drift to occur as the currents unravel the coils. The wiggle cast is useful in upstream, across stream, and downstream presentations. Easy to do, the wiggle cast is performed by wiggling the rod just after the forward cast power stroke. Keep slight tension on the line. The rod wiggling is done in the horizontal plane. When...

Crustaceans

Scientific Name Amphipoda 2 types of legs There are over 50 different species of the scud. This fascinating crustacean looks and acts like saltwater shrimp so they are often called freshwater shrimp. Scuds have been successfully introduced into man-made tail waters, lakes and reservoirs. There is a wide variety of colors even among the same species, same generation and area. Males are smaller than the females and their diet and growth rate will vary. Scuds have two long antennae on top of the...

Sow Bugs Isopoda

Common names for sow bugs are cress bugs and pill bugs. They are closely related to scuds and have the same life cycle as the scud. Other relatives are terrestrial potato bugs. Sow bugs have 8 very distinct flat segments, 2 pairs of antennae-one small and one large. On the rear segment there are two paddle-like flat tails. The underside of the body is white. These bugs are very slow crawlers and will helplessly drift in the current and may roll up in a pill shape. They are nocturnal and can be...